When one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an NH2 group in an organic acid, the amino acid is called an amino acid. There are several different chemical compounds that are produced as a result of protein breakdown, but this one is one of the most important. Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins. In an amino acid, a carbon atom, a free among group (which contains nitrogen-NH2), and a carboxyl group are all present (COOH). Amino acids react amphoterically with both acids and bases, resulting in the formation of salts. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are derived from saturated fatty acids. Amino acids are a colorless, crystalline material that is soluble in water, easily diffusible, and optically active (with the exception of glycine). Acid residues are formed when the amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids interact. As a result, a peptide is composed of two or more amino acid residues that are joined together by peptide bonds.
When we say “metabolism of amino acids,” we are referring to the metabolism of protein. An amino acid exchange occurs constantly in the body, with amino acids moving from tissue to blood and other bodily fluids and back again from bodily fluids to tissue. The size of the amino acid pool shows the balance between the removal and addition of amino acids. The size of the amino acid pool can be divided into two categories based on the form in which amino acids are utilized.
I. The functions that undamaged amino acids perform
1. The production of cell protoplasm. Because proteins are the primary and important elements of live cells, amino acids are required for the construction of living cells.
2. Taking up the slack from wear and tear. When tissue proteins are broken down during metabolism, amino acids are released to repair the damage.
3. Protein preservation and storage. When nitrogen equilibrium is reached in adults and the elderly, protein degradation outpaces protein synthesis, and proteins cannot be preserved as a consequence. However, they can be stored throughout the active/growing stage of life, when protein synthesis outpaces protein degradation.
4. Essential amino acids: There are some amino acids that cannot be generated by the body, but which are required for the growth and preservation of life in the environment.
5. There are other synthesis processes. amino acids are essential for the synthesis of many different proteins, including bile acids and plasma proteins, haemoglobin and hormones, enzymes, and milk proteins in lactating mothers. They also aid in the production of glutathione and cytochrome P450, melanin, antibodies, and the production of the enzyme rhodypsin and urea. When the amino acids in their intact form have completed the tasks listed above to the needed stage, the excess amounts of amino acids degrade and undergo the next series of actions listed below.
II. The role of amino acids in the breakdown of proteins
1. The availability of energy. When amino acids are broken down, they release energy at a rate of 4.3 Calories per gram of protein consumed.
2. Rapid-fire action. When amino acids are broken down, they release a specific stimulating influence on tissue metabolism to the level of approximately 30% of the total.
3. Deamination is performed. During deamination, which occurs under the influence of specific enzymes, the amino acid loses its radicle and is divided into two parts: the nitrogenous component and the non-nitrogenous part, each of which has a distinct role.
The nitrogenous component, ammonia, is transformed to urea in significant quantities (80 percent), while a smaller proportion (25 percent) reacts with acids to generate ammonium salts. Furthermore, it is used in the synthesis of simple amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and glutamic acid, as well as some nitrogenous chemicals such as creation, purine, uric acid, pyrimidine, and lecithin, among other things.
Most of the non-nitrogenous residues are converted into carbs, and some of them are also broken down into fatty acids in the body. Its sulfur and phosphorus constituents are transformed into their respective compounds before excretion is completed.